Monday, December 21, 2009

Ringi-sei [稟議制] | Ringi System

Ringi-sei, Bottom-up decision making process

"The "ringi" system refers to the process of making bottom-up decisions that is common in Japan, especially in the bureaucracy. Under this system, low-ranking officials (lower-level managers in the private sector) draw up an initial plan, which is then circulated among higher-ranking officials to receive their seals of approval. Although the "ringi" system may seem to be a democratic decision making process that achieves a consensus among those concerned before reaching a final decision, some people claim that it makes it difficult to determine who is actually responsible for a decision and its outcome because nobody seems to assume responsibility."

Essentials for Understanding Japan's Bureaucracy (1997)

Japanese Business Culture and Practices: A Guide to Twenty-First Century Japanese Business

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